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Background-WWI

Background - WWI
Eksteins, Rite 
Modris Eksteins, Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age (NY: Doubleday, 1989), pp. 64-94, 155-169, 275-299.

Background - WWI
Mosse, Fallen Soldiers, 1 + 8 
George L. Mosse, Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars (NY & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990)


Background - WWI
Ernst Friedrich, Krieg dem Kriege [War Against War]


Dulce et Decorum Est  
by Wilfred Owen

Bent double, like old beggars under sacks,
Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,
Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs
And towards our distant rest began to trudge.
Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots
But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind;
Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots
Of tired, outstripped Five-Nines that dropped behind.

Gas! Gas! Quick, boys!—An ecstasy of fumbling,
Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time;
But someone still was yelling out and stumbling
And flound'ring like a man in fire or lime...
Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light,
As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.

In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,
He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.

If in some smothering dreams you too could pace
Behind the wagon that we flung him in,
And watch the white eyes writhing in his face,
His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin;
If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood
Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,
Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud
Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,—
My friend, you would not tell with such high zest
To children ardent for some desperate glory,
The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est
Pro patria mori
.


Ernst Jünger as a recruit, 1914.

Image © DLA Marbach.






Ernst Jünger in a trench, 1915.

Image © DLA Marbach.



Ernst Jünger (l) and Leutnant Kienitz before a commando raid, 1917.

Image © DLA Marbach.





Juenger in WWII


Juenger in 1995 (100 years old)